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Stature types

[adopted from Largent, 1986]

There are seven characters that are utilized in determining the stature type of a mushroom.

They are:

  1. annulus (presence or absence)
  2. volva (presence or absence)
  3. attachment of the gills (free, adnexed, adnate or decurrent)
  4. attachment of the stipe (central, offset, lateral)
  5. consistency of stipe (cartilaginous or fibrous)
  6. shape of pileus, in side view (various from bell shaped to convave, etc.)
  7. type of pileal margin

Free or Finely Adnexed Gills:


Annulus present
Gills free (or finely adnexed)
Volva present


Annulus absent
Gills free (or finely adnexed)
Volva present


Annulus present
Gills free (or finely adnexed)
Volva absent


Annulus absent
Gills free (or finely adnexed)
Volva absent

The type of stipe differentiates the next two groups of four stature
types each. In the past, size was used to differentiate fibrous from
cartilaginous, but it worked only about 75% of the time. Fibrous stalks
were >4mm diameter.

Fibrous, or fleshy fibrous stipes are generally relatively thick.
When broken it will leave a "ragged edge". A cartilaginous stipe
is usually thinner and "breaks with a firm split when bent in two,
similar to cartilage (Largent, 1986)."

Attached Gills and a Central, Fleshy-Fibrous or Brittle Stalk, no volva


Annulus present
Gill attachment various


Annulus absent
Gill attachment sinuate


Annulus present
Gill attachment decurrent or subdecurrent


Annulus absent
Gill attachment adnate, adnexed or abruptly adnexed

The next four stature types are usually rather small mushrooms with a
cartilaginous stipe and variously attached gills. None have a volva.
They are differentiated mostly by shape of the pileus, nature of the
pileal margin and gill attachment. Only one has an annulus.
Anellarioid1(Galerinoid) Mycenoid
Pileusvariableconic to campanulate
Pileus marginvariabledecureved at first
Gill attachmentvariablevariable, not decurrent
Collybioid Omphaloid
Pileusconvexplane to umbilicate
Pileus marginincurved or inrolled at firstvariable
Gill attachmentvariable, not decurrentdecurrent or subdecurrent

The last stature type is completely artificial. All twelve of the
previous stature types have a (more or less) echocentral attachment of
the stipe.

1. Largent must have changed his mind about using the word Anellariod. That stature type appears as Galerinoid on page 63.