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Field characters

Pileus: campanulate to conical, dull colored
Annulus: often evident in young specimens, but not leaving a ring on the stipe , but an annular area may be present on the stipe.
Stipe: slender, appearing long in comparison to the cap diameter, not
particularly fragile as In Psilocybe and Psathyrella (Largent and Thiers, 1977). With a pruinose apex (
Stature: Anellarioid, Mycenoid
Ecology: frequently seen on lawns and gardens, often associated with dung

Micro characters

Basidiospores: large, very dark and "lemon shaped" with a conspicuous germ pore; do not discolor in sulfuric acid.
Cystidia: cheilocystidia only
Spore Print: black to dark brown
Lamellae: mottled (see photo) light and dark
Lamellar Trama: regular
Pileipellis: hymeniderm or an ixohymeniderm (


I guess you could confuse Panaeolus with Psathyrella; they are both usually brown, uninteresting mushrooms.

I have found the mottled gills, which are easily seen with a hand lens a very useful field characteristic.

Panaeolus often occurs in fields and lawns, and is associated with dung