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Field characters

Pileus: smooth, dry
Annulus: none
Stipe: often longitudinally striate (Largent, 1986), and "consistently" with dense hyphae at the base (Bessette et al., 1997)
Stature: Clitocyboid, Naucorioid
Ecology: on the ground, do not decay readily and can be collected for weeks at one locality (Largent, 1986). Mycorrhizal (Arora, 1986, Barron, 1999).

Micro characters

Basidiospores: mostly globose to elliptical and ornamented
(echinate). One species ellipsoid and smooth (both
Illustrated), inamyloid.
Hyphae: all with clamp connections
Cystidia: none, or cheilocystidia scattered and inconspicuous (Singer, 1986)
Spore Print: white to light violet
Lamellae: somewhat thick and distant, usually colored (blue, violet, yellow, reddish, "flesh-colored"), adnate to subdecurrent.
Lamellar Trama: regular
Pileipellis: rectocutis, trichoderm, or tomentum (


FeSO4 causes a dark grayish reaction on species tested (Singer, 1986).

According to Arora, 1986 "This a small but common genus can be distinguished in the field by its thick, purple to pinkish gills or flesh colored gills and tough fibrous stem. The gills might be somewhat waxy-looking as in the waxy caps (Hygrophoracecae) but the tough stalk is distinctive…"